Phenomenalist: ‘The question is, either science is observing nature objectively, by looking at or upon it, or it is nature observing itself – because science acts in nature. Either way something different is happening to the way things change in nature, since perception now has an active role. So how are we to understand ‘the fact’ of nature?’
Realist: ‘You seem to have overlooked the fact that perception is explained as an evolved capacity that assists survival, which is the same reason why thinking evolved with all its inherent meanings and purposes.’
P: The utility of perception and intelligence for survival is without question, but it doesn’t prove that evolution is the explanation. Evolution is observable as the result of change, but it amounts to a description, not an explanation – although the theory is generally regarded as if it is the cause of those changes.
R: That’s because the theory proves what actually happens.
P: There is no doubting the assiduous detective work that goes into piecing together the facts of evolution, but proving a fact is not the same as explaining it.
R: You’re splitting hairs. It’s the same thing.
P: The distinction is not trivial. The explanations are theoretical, hence it is properly called ‘the theory of evolution’. Evolution appears to make things happen, but ‘it’ has no capabilities – it is no determinant of possibility – so we can’t explain the capacity for things to evolve by noting their evolution. In other words, evolution doesn’t supply an answer to the question of how things are possible. It is neither the beginning nor the end of possibility, nor does it give us an overview of what is possible. In short, evolution is not the cause that we read into it, though it’s easy to see how the mistake arises, given the belief in underlying causes as the foundation of all explanation. However, all the information in a picture doesn’t explain the change to its perception even though changes in one state of reality produce changes in the other. Furthermore, in the bigger picture, we see that causes build upon causes in the constitution of different realities existing in parallel, but it doesn’t allow us to claim that one difference is the explanation of the other or that the unfolding direction of change is explained by the first cause.
R: Nor does the idea of parallel realities help to explain anything.
P: I’m not pretending that there is an explanation for everything. It’s as basic as this: a book is filled with information but nothing is recollected until a reader comes along – so a book is and isn’t the source or explanation of knowledge, it just seems so when using it as a point of reference – but we don’t make the mistake of believing that the book knows anything. The same applies to our observations of cause and effect as an explanation of change. The explanation is in the mind, not in the cause. Nor can we validate those explanations by claiming that they are direct effects of our observations – as if that explains what we see. The same mistake arises when we believe that the brain does our thinking for us.
R: It doesn’t mean that the theory of evolution is wrong.
P: It does and doesn’t – it is wrong to believe that evolution provides a ‘missing link’ that explains change. The theory is not self-explanatory, rather the explanation is an embellishment we attach to the observation that things change – which we presume to evolve that way because the changes are useful in the struggle for survival.
R: So you accept that evolution has a place?
P: However, it’s not the facts of change that owe their origin to the theory of evolution, rather it is the theory of evolution that owes its origin to the facts of change.
R: Nevertheless, natural selection explains those changes as adaptations in life.
P: Except the nature behind it all has no need to be selective. That is, according to the laws of physics, there is no need for life to emerge, no necessity for there to be additional ‘evolved’ states of existence.
R: But there it is – identifiable as a process of natural selection, which is also the explanation of how evolution works.
P: I am not denying the fact of natural selection in evolution, but I am questioning its status as the definitive explanation of change in nature.
R: There is no better explanation. Also you are raising your objection in defiance of all the accumulated evidence.
P: The process of natural selection is but one unexplained change to the nature of nature, and it is not the end of the story. The evidence indicates that things change, and the ensuing difference reveals properties that exist in addition to the observable cause – hence the laws of physics contrast with the relatively extraneous functions of biology, psychology and survival. Nor can we explain away those differences as superficial versions of their underlying causes. At the same time, we see the face of nature being transformed through the activities of a host of shaping influences, which we interpret variously and retrospectively as the marshalling of order, organisation, necessity, need, purpose and design. Of course, science does not associate all of these factors with ‘things natural’.
R: Because the explanation that things exist by design has been discredited scientifically.
P: However, design exists in the real world – so where are you going to place it, or its agents, if it is not in the course of nature as defined and explained by science?
R: But where’s your evidence that nature turns into something else?
P: Remember, I am talking about a plurality of inexplicable natures, compared to a single version which is equally inexplicable. In fact, things diverge in extraordinary ways from a reality seen to be unified by insensible natural causes; but you want to solve the problem by predicting that the facts will one day show us that it is all one and the same, so we might as well start believing it now.
R: Then how would you approach the problem?
P: Despite nature having been described as a ‘blind watchmaker’, implying a non-designer of ‘things natural’, we still have to explain the presence in nature of real watchmakers and their purpose-built designs. To put it crudely, nature works as nature works, with the mind working as the mind works – bear with me on that for the moment – but the fact that thought fails or alters if the bio-chemical system fails or alters doesn’t prove that thought is just biochemistry, or that consciousness is explained by the cells of the brain becoming conscious.
R: So is consciousness floating about in a world of its own?
P: Yes and no. Consciousness is different from other natural states – though we see it as growing out of those states.
R: So how do you define consciousness?
P: By the fact of what we know in being conscious. But there is a reason why we cannot equate it to something else, thereby to explain it, because it means becoming conscious of it as something in addition to itself – the cause of the becoming – which nudges our awareness of the original fact out of the frame for the sake of a non-conscious fact that we claim to be more original. Alternatively, if consciousness is a property of nature, albeit incomprehensible and inexplicable at present, then nature is both conscious and unconscious – something that we wrestle with in ourselves. Either way, it is the definition of nature that gives way, not the fact of consciousness.
R: You still haven’t defined consciousness.
P: You’re missing the point – which is, the moment we try to relate consciousness or thought to something else, ostensibly in the name of explanation, we stand to lose sight of the features we are talking about – since we are now talking about them as features of something else. This is why I asked you to bear with me earlier – because beneath it all, we can see that everything remains unchanged. So, apparently, things change and don’t change – we really are stardust – however, the preconditions for change don’t explain the inception of change, or where it leads. The point is that we need to alter our approach to the way we define things – beginning with our definition of ‘things natural’ – and we can make a start by accepting that we don’t have an adequate understanding of ‘things natural’ or ‘things explained’ or, indeed, ‘things conscious’.
R: Then would you say that the problem is solved by the idea of a grand design within it all and a grand designer behind that?
To be continued